Investigation 11B: Inelastic collisions
How can we predict the outcome of an inelastic collision?
In this investigation you will explore how the total kinetic energy and momentum of a closed system involving two carts is affected by a perfectly inelastic collision between the carts.
Perfectly inelastic collisions
Set a red cart and a blue cart on a level track with the Velcro
ends facing each other, as shown. Adjust the track feet to make sure the track is as level as possible.
Open the experiment file
, and then power-on the Smart Carts and connect them to your computer using Bluetooth.
Begin collecting data with both carts stationary, and then push the red cart into the blue cart. Stop recording data after the carts have collided.
Use your software to find the velocity of each cart before the collision, and the final velocity of the two carts after the collision.
Run the experiment for different combinations of masses for the two carts (0.25 kg = mass of empty cart). Use your data table to record the velocities for each combination.
Calculate the total system momentum and kinetic energy before and after each collision. Record the values in your table and examine the table for patterns.
Describe the velocities before and after the collision when masses are equal.
Describe the velocities (before and after) when the blue cart has more mass.
Describe the velocities (before and after) when the red cart has more mass.
As a result of the collision, does the total momentum of the system increase, decrease, or remain the same? Does the total kinetic energy of the system increase, decrease, or remain the same?
Collision in two dimensions
Collision involving a stationary target ball
Comparison between elastic, inelastic, and perfectly inelastic collisions
Is this collision elastic?
Perfectly inelastic collision between two balls
The behavior of Newton's Cradle
11A: Conservation of momentum (p. 621)
11B: Inelastic collisions (p. 627)
11C: Elastic collisions (p. 629)
Design a crash barrier (p. 617)
Elastic and inelastic collisions
How momentum differs from inertia
Law of conservation of momentum
Momentum and Newton's first law
Momentum and Newton's second law
Momentum and Newton's third law
Momentum conservation in graphical form
Newton's second law, impulse, and a broken egg
Symmetry in the physics of collisions
Car Airbags and Impulse
Improving football helmets
Rocket propulsion in a vacuum
Seat belts and airbags
Design a crash barrier
Designing crumple zones to reduce forces during a car crash
Adding vectors in 1D
Perfectly elastic collision between two balls
Impulse is the product of force and time applied
Impulse is the change in momentum
Conservation of momentum in collisions
i - Title Page and Author’s Letter
ii - Table of Contents
1 - Science of Physics
2 - Physical Quantities and Measurement
3 - Position and Velocity
4 - Acceleration
5 - Forces and Newton’s Laws
6 - Motion in Two and Three Dimensions
7 - Circular Motion
8 - Static Equilibrium and Torque
9 - Work and Energy
10 - Conservation of Energy
11 - Momentum and Collisions
Chapter 11 study guide
11.1 - Momentum and impulse
11.2 - Conservation of momentum
11.3 - Collisions
11.4 - Chapter review
12 - Machines
13 - Angular Momentum
14 - Harmonic Motion
15 - Waves
16 - Sound
17 - Electricity and Circuits
18 - Electric and Magnetic Fields
19 - Electromagnetism
20 - Light and Reflection
21 - Refraction and Lenses
22 - Electromagnetic Radiation
23 - Properties of Matter
24 - Heat Transfer
25 - Thermodynamics
26 - Quantum Physics and the Atom
27 - Nuclear Physics