Chapter 23 review


    Vocabulary
    Match each word to the sentence where it best fits.
      Section 23.1

      Avogadro’s number Boltzmann’s constant
      Brownian motion Calorie
      Celsius scale Fahrenheit scale
      Kelvin scale absolute zero
      calorie gas
      heat kinetic theory
      liquid mole
      phases of matter solid
      specific heat temperature
      thermal energy thermometer
      1. The ________ is a temperature scale on which the boiling point of water is 212°.
      2. The wood in a table is an example of matter in its ________ phase.
      3. The __________ is a unit of energy that is often found on food nutritional labels.
      4. A/An __________ is a unit of thermal energy, commonly used in chemistry, that is equal to the amount of energy required to heat one gram of water by one degree Celsius.
      5. ___________ is a form of energy associated with the temperature of a single object.
      6. The ________ is a temperature scale on which the freezing point of water is at 0°.
      7. The qualities of hot or cold are described by ________.
      8. It takes 4.18 J to raise one gram of water by one degree Celsius because the ________ of water is 4.18 J/(g ºC).
      9. A mole of nitrogen atoms contains a number of individual atoms defined by _______.
      10. _______ provides the conversion between microscopic thermal energy per particle and macroscopic temperature.
      11. Temperature is measured with a/an _______.
      12. The helium inside a balloon is an example of matter in its ________ phase.
      13. Gas, liquid, and solid are the three most commonly encountered __________.
      14. One _______ of an element contains 6.022×1023 individual atoms.
      1. The _______ is a connection between the microscopic behavior of collections of particles and their macroscopic properties.
      2. The _______ is an absolute scale for temperature.
      3. The lowest possible temperature is called _______.
      4. A pollen speck floating is water is observed to jiggle around when seen through a microscope. This chaotic behavior is known as ________.
      5. Apple juice is an example of matter in its ________ phase.
      Section 23.2

      Bernoulli’s equation Boyle’s law
      Charles’s law compressible
      density fluid
      ideal gas ideal gas law
      incompressible pressure
      streamline 
      1. The equation PV = nKT is an expression of the _______.
      2. An imaginary line through a fluid tracing the path of motion of a fluid particle is called the _______.
      3. Energy conservation along a streamline is often expressed as ρgh + ½mv2 + P = constant, which is also called _______.
      4. A/An _______ is a substance that can change shape and flow readily in response to applied forces.
      5. A/An _______ fluid will change its volume in proportion to changes in pressure.
      6. For a gas at constant pressure, the change in volume is proportional to the change in absolute temperature according to _______.
      7. _______ is force per unit area.
      8. A/An _______ fluid does not change its volume in proportion to changes in pressure.
      9. In a/an _______, randomly moving point particles only collide elastically with each other and the walls of the container.
      10. _______ is measured in kilograms per cubic meter in SI units.
      11. _______ is often expressed as P1V1 = P2V2.

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