Chapter 23 review


    Vocabulary
    Match each word to the sentence where it best fits.
      Section 23.3

      Maxwellian distribution quantum physics
      statistical mechanics 
      1. The mathematical function describing the distribution of velocities in an ideal gas is called the _______.
      2. The branch of physics in which large ensembles of particles are analyzed is called _______.
      Conceptual questions
        Section 23.1
        1. Examine the nutrition label on a can of soda. How many Calories does it contain? How many joules is this? If this energy is used to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water at room temperature (21°C), will the water boil?
        2. A student wanted the equipment to be warmed up and ready for his investigation the next day, so he left the hot plate on overnight. Why is this a bad idea?
        3. The amount of energy that must be used to heat 1 kg of a substance by 1ºC is called the
          1. heat.
          2. specific heat.
          3. temperature.
          4. thermal energy.
        4. What is the purpose of using a ring clamp to hold a styrofoam cup full of hot water?
        5. Would you use a ring clamp or a 90° rod clamp to hold a glass test tube in place?
        6. Easy At 25ºC, oxygen is a gas, but aluminum is a solid. Why are they in different phases even though they are at the same temperature?
        7. Easy When you heat a flask of water, how are you changing the ordered kinetic energy of the water molecules (if at all)? Likewise, how are you changing the random kinetic energy of the molecules (if at all)?
        8. Easy You are about to pour cold water into one cup and hot water into a second cup. How can you can put the same amount of thermal energy into each cup?
        9. Easy Which is a larger change in temperature, 1°F or 1°C?
        1. Easy In the phases of matter simulation, set the element to argon and the temperature to 200 K. Describe in your own words the behavior of the argon atoms, and use their behavior to determine whether they form a solid, a liquid, or a gas.
        2. Easy For each of the following, state whether it is a correct report of a temperature (physically possible and using correct notation). If it is not correct, explain why.
          1. −722.1ºF
          2. −25 K
          3. 230.0ºC
          4. 293ºK
        3. Easy If the molecules in the desk in front of you are moving, then why is the desk standing still?
        4. Easy Rose fills a bathtub with hot water and takes her laundry out of the dryer. Then she goes to do something else. When she gets back the water in the tub is still hot but her laundry has cooled off. Which probably has a higher specific heat, water or her clothes?
        5. Easy A large pitcher contains 1 L of water at 10°C. How would the total heat (or thermal energy) of the water change if you:
          1. double the amount of water at the same temperature?
          2. change the temperature from 10°C to 20°C?
          3. switch the liquid from water to gasoline, but for the same mass and temperature?
        6. Easy More than a century ago, people often used hot water bottles to heat their bed sheets before climbing in. Why didn’t they use hot metal objects of similar mass instead?
        7. A 20 kg block of ice and a 200 g cup of hot tea
        8. Medium Compare a 20 kg block of ice to a 200 g cup of hot tea.
          1. Which one has more thermal energy? Why?
          2. If you poured the hot tea into an indentation on the top of the ice block, would you expect the ice to melt or the tea to cool to the freezing point? Why?
        9. Medium Areas of the world that are close to oceans or other large bodies of water usually have climates that have a narrower range in temperature. Why is this so?
        10. Medium Your friend is having trouble understanding what the average kinetic energy of atoms has to do with overall temperature of a substance. Help him understand by giving an example in everyday life where the average of individuals in a system tells you something about the overall system.

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