Chapter study guide

Three fundamental quantities in physics are mass, distance, and time. All quantities are measured with both a value and its units. The units of the International System (SI) are used as the standard units for quantities such as the kilogram, meter, and second. Quantities can be converted from one set of units to another by using conversion factors. Scientific notation is useful for expressing quantities from microscopic to macroscopic scales. All measurements are expressed in a way that conveys their precision and uncertainty. When performing calculations, the precision of the result can never be better than that of the least precise quantity that contributes to the calculation. Physics often requires creating models—including equations and graphs—as representations to fit observational data. Algebra is a useful tool for constructing mathematical models of physical data.

By the end of this chapter you should be able to
distinguish between fundamental and derived quantities;
distinguish among mass, inertia, and weight;
calculate surface area, volume, and density;
use scientific notation and algebra to solve problems;
convert units for fundamental and derived quantities;
use the appropriate number of significant figures and decimal places when performing calculations;
describe several causes and effects of uncertainties on measured data; and
draw a graph of a set of data points, identify the dependent and independent variables, and measure the slope of the graph.

2A: Indirect measurement, estimation, and scale
2B: Graphical relationships
2C: Algebraic relationships

38Describing the physical universe
39Measurements and units
40Matter and mass
41Inertia, weight, and mass
42Space and length
43Surface area, volume, and density
44Macroscopic and microscopic scales
45Scientific notation
47Section 1 review
49Significant figures
502A: Indirect measurement, estimation, and scale
51Causes and effects of uncertainties
52Safety in investigations
53Section 2 review
54Mathematical tools
55Visualizing data
56Models and equations
57Regression and curve fitting
58Bar graphs and pie charts
592B: Graphical relationships
60Problem–solving steps
622C: Algebraic relationships
63Section 3 review
64Chapter review
ρ= m V
S=4π r 2
S=2πrh+2π r 2
S=π r 2 +πr r 2 + h 2
V= 4 3 π r 3
V=π r 2 h
V= 1 3 π r 2 h
inertialengthsurface area
scientific notationexponentaccuracy
precisiondecimal placessignificant figures
conversion factordependent variableindependent variable
variablemodellinear regression
correlation coefficientpie graphbar graph
frequency tableerror barsbox and whiskers plot

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