Chapter 16 review


    Vocabulary
    Match each word to the sentence where it best fits.
      Section 16.1

      Doppler effect decibel (dB)
      pitch speed of sound
      supersonic 
      1. A sound that is 90 _______ is louder than an 80 _______ sound.
      2. An airplane that is moving at 600 m/s is undergoing _______ motion.
      3. When the sound of an approaching train is higher in pitch than the sound of a receding train, this is an example of the _______.
      4. A musical note “B” differs in _______ from the note “C.”
      Section 16.2

      Fourier’s theorem frequency spectrum
      microphone spectrogram
      1. A device for converting sound waves in air into electrical signals is called a _______.
      2. A graphical tool for showing what oscillations are present in a wave is called a _______.
      3. A graphical representation of sound and its various frequency contributions is called a _______.
      4. When applying _______ to analyze the same note played by a piano and a flute, you can see that each has different contributions from higher frequency sounds.
      Section 16.3

      beats echo
      harmonic phase
      1. When two sounds of nearly the same frequency are played at the same time, the sound waves drift in and out of _____, causing beats.
      2. A piano and guitar playing the same fundamental tone will have different relative contributions of each _______ in their sound.
      3. Sound reflected off the other side of the canyon, allowing Rosabella to hear a/an _______.
      1. When you hear two sound waves at the same time, but they have slightly different frequencies, you might hear a slow pulsation of sound called _______.
      Conceptual questions
        Section 16.1
        1. Describe the difference between loudness and pitch in musical sounds.
        2. When conducting Investigation 16B on page 888, two students disagreed over a point. One of them said that the frequency of the sound would be higher if the source producing the sound were moving toward the observer. The other students said that the frequency of the sound would be higher if the observer were moving toward the source producing the sound. Which student is correct?
        3. How does the amplitude of a sound wave affect how you hear a sound wave?
        4. Which of the following two statements are not true of sound?
          1. Sound is a transverse wave.
          2. Sound is a small traveling oscillation of pressure.
          3. The amplitude of audible sound waves may be less than one millionth of an atmosphere.
          4. Ordinary sound contains at most one or two different frequencies at a time.
        5. Easy When we talk of the “highest” or “lowest” notes on a piano, they are highest and lowest in what physical property of sound?
        6. Easy Is a high-frequency sound higher or lower in pitch? What is the relationship between pitch and frequency?
        7. Easy Which has a longer period, a musical note with a high pitch or one with a low pitch?
        8. Easy A violinist presses her finger down in the middle of a string she is playing. How does this change the wavelength of the sound produced by the string?
        9. Medium Why do sound waves typically oscillate at higher frequencies than water waves?
        10. Medium Estimate the loudness in decibels for the sound at a concert of (a) classical music with a solo piano, (b) a full orchestra, (c) an African drumming ensemble, and (d) a rock band.
        11. Medium There is a pipe in a church pipe organ that you want to sound a higher pitch. What can you do to the pipe to raise its pitch?

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