Chapter 21 review

    Match each word to the sentence where it best fits.
      Section 21.1

      Snell’s law of refraction critical angle
      index of refraction refraction
      total internal reflection 
      1. _______ is the relationship among the indices of refraction, the angle of incidence, and the angle of refraction.
      2. Light passing into a new material may exhibit _______ and change direction.
      3. _______ occurs in glass at angles of incidence greater than 41°.
      4. The _______ of air is 1.0003.
      5. A high index of refraction results in a small _______.
      Section 21.2

      concave lens convex lens
      focal length focal point
      real image virtual image
      1. A _______ produces a virtual image that is upright and reduced in size.
      2. A _______ bends light rays towards the optical axis.
      3. The distance from the surface of a lens to the focal point is the _______
      4. A _______ can be projected on a screen.
      5. When an image appears at a certain location, such as behind a plane mirror, but the light rays do not actually converge there, it is a _______.
      6. Parallel light rays that are incident upon a converging lens will be focused at the _______.
      Section 21.3

      cones rods
      1. The brain is told how bright light is by _______ in the eye.
      2. The _______ in an eye perceive color.
        Conceptual questions
          Section 21.1
          1. Explain why a straightedge (or two pins) are needed to trace a light ray in Investigation 21A on page 1218.
          2. A ray of light shines through an interface between glass and water and bends toward the normal. Is the ray passing from the glass into the water or the other way around?
          3. For each of the following, indicate whether the phenomenon described involves refraction or reflection.
            1. You see yourself in a mirror.
            2. Objects look larger when viewed through a magnifying glass.
            3. Objects look broken when semi-submerged in water.
            4. A room looks unusual when viewed through a glass.
            5. You can see the room in which you are standing in somebody else’s sunglasses.
            6. People who cannot see well can often see better with glasses.
            7. At night when you look out of your house through a window, you can still see the room you are standing in.
          4. Amelie shines a light ray from air into a material with n = 1. If she changes the second material to have n = 2, what happens to the sine of the angle of refraction?
          5. If light rays going from window glass to leaded glass are deflected toward the normal, in which direction are light rays deflected when passing from leaded glass to window glass?
          6. A light ray shines from acrylic (n = 1.49) into ice (n = 1.31).
            1. Would the ray deflect toward the normal or away from it?
            2. If the acrylic was replaced with diamond (n = 2.4), would the ray deflect more or less?
          7. Ahmad has materials A, B, C, and D, with indices of refraction 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. He shines a light ray from A into B with angle of incidence 40° and angle of refraction 18.7°. What other pair of materials could he use to get the exact same angles of incidence and refraction?
          8. Aisha has materials A, B, and C. Material A and B have indices of refraction of 1 and 3, respectively. The critical angle for a ray traveling from B to A is the same as the critical angle for a ray traveling from C to B. What is the index of refraction of material C?
          9. Easy What is the difference between a reflected ray and a refracted ray? How does each relate to the incident ray?

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