Section 2 review
Optical devices may change the path of light rays through reflection and refraction. Reflection bounces light off of a surface, such as a mirror. Specular reflection occurs with shiny surfaces and diffuse reflection occurs with nonshiny surfaces, such as paper. Refraction bends the path of light as the light passes from one medium into another, such as from glass into air and vice versa. Refraction is the principle behind prisms and lenses. Both reflection and refraction can be used to form images. Magnification occurs when an image has a different apparent size than an object. Dispersion occurs when an optical element separates white light into its constituent colors, such as a prism creating a rainbow. Optical media may have varying degrees of opacity, transparency, or translucency. Read the text aloud
mirror, lens, prism, reflection, refraction, specular reflection, diffuse reflection, magnification, transparent, opaque, translucent

m= h i h o

Review problems and questions

Match each diagram to the name and function
  1. Match each diagram (A, B, and C) to the appropriate name (i–iii) and function (a–c) from the list.

    Name Function
    1. Mirror
    2. Lens
    3. Prism
    1. Refracts light and may magnify.
    2. Reflects light and may show images.
    3. Refracts light without magnification.
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  1. A ruler of length 30 cm is submerged in a tank of water. The image seen outside the tank is measured to be 36 cm long.
    1. What is the magnification of this system?
    2. In centimeters, how long would a meter stick in the tank of water appear to be? Read the text aloud Show
  1. A piece of sandpaper may turn a transparent plastic window into a translucent plastic window. Propose a hypothesis to explain why sanding the surface makes the window translucent. Use the concept of light rays in your explanation. Read the text aloud Show
  1. How large does the image of a 10-m-tall tree appear when using an optical device with a magnification of 0.3? Read the text aloud Show
  1. In Investigation 20A on page 1169, which optical device would you choose to
    1. create a magnified (enlarged) image?
    2. create an upside-down or inverted image?
    3. create an image the same size as the object? Read the text aloud Show
  1. How should you handle a lens when you pick it up? Show

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