Section 4 review
Applications of nuclear physics include medical diagnostic imaging (both PET and MRI), radiation therapy, and nuclear power. Fission reactions, continually maintained by a nuclear chain reaction, are at the heart of a nuclear power plant. Fusion is another kind of nuclear reaction and it occurs in the core of the Sun. Fusion is not yet a proven source for regular energy production on the Earth. The standard model is the modern consensus of elementary particles (including bosons such as light) and how the particles interact with each other. There are four fundamental forces of nature—gravitational, electromagnetic, weak, and strong—and all but gravity are encompassed in the standard model. Read the text aloud
nuclear energy, control rods, nuclear waste, positron, dose, rem, Geiger counter, ionization, radiotherapy

Review problems and questions

  1. List three applications of nuclear physics. Read the text aloud Show
  1. Compare the advantages and disadvantages of electrical generation by nuclear power versus burning coal. Read the text aloud Show
  1. What are some of the challenges encountered by researchers who are trying to develop nuclear power using fusion? Read the text aloud Show
  1. Which of the two following reactions is a fission reaction and which is a fusion reaction?
    1. H 1 2 + H 1 3 H 2 4 e+ n 0 1
    2. n 0 1 + U 92 235 B 56 144 a+ K 36 89 r+3 n 0 1 Read the text aloud Show
  1. Which of the two reactions above is most likely to be found inside a nuclear power plant, and which is most likely to be found in the core of the Sun? Read the text aloud Show
    1. In a fission reaction, will the combined binding energies of the nuclei in the products differ from the binding energy of the original nucleus? If so, explain the origin of the difference.
    2. In a fusion reaction, will the binding energy of the resulting nucleus differ from the combined binding energies of the original nuclei? If so, explain the origin of the difference.
    3. Show
  1. Describe the role of control rods in a nuclear power plant. Read the text aloud Show
  1. Describe what happens if an electron collides with a positron. Read the text aloud Show
  1. Which scientific instrument is the best choice to detect the presence of radioactivity?
    1. a galvanometer
    2. a rem
    3. a magnetic resonance imager
    4. a Geiger counter Read the text aloud Show
  1. A quark is a type of particle that is never seen directly or in isolation.
    1. What are the six types of quarks?
    2. What common particles are composed of three quarks? Read the text aloud Show

Take a Quiz

820Previous Page Next Page