Chapter 27 review


    Vocabulary
    Match each word to the sentence where it best fits.
      Section 27.1

      atomic mass unit (amu) binding energy
      mass deficiency mass–energy equivalence
      rest energy strong nuclear force
      1. A particle that is not in motion still contains _______ that can be calculated from Einstein’s famous equation.
      2. The difference in _______ between the particles before and after a nuclear reaction is the energy source of nuclear power.
      3. The electric force of repulsion would push the protons in the nucleus apart if not for the _______ that holds them together.
      4. If you total the individual masses of the nucleons in a nucleus it will not equal the total mass of the nucleus. The difference is called the _______.
      5. The number 14.007 represents the average mass of a nitrogen atom using the unit _______.
      6. Einstein’s famous equation is a statement of _______.
      Section 27.2

      alpha decay beta decay
      carbon dating gamma decay
      half-life radioactive
      radioactive decay weak nuclear force
      1. Carbon-14 has a/an _______ of 5,730 years.
      2. An atom that is unstable and may emit energetic particles is called _______.
      3. The age of a fossil can be estimated by using a process called _______.
      4. In _______, the total number of neutrons, protons, and electrons in an atom remains the same.
      5. _______ is when a nucleus emits a particle with two protons and two neutrons.
      6. Alpha and beta particles can be emitted by a nucleus in a process called _______.
      7. Radioactive decay is governed by the _______.
      1. _______ is when a nucleus emits an electron and is accompanied by the transformation of a neutron into a proton.
      Section 27.3

      fission fusion
      nuclear chain reaction nuclear reaction
      1. Through a _______ an element is changed into another.
      2. Nuclei are split in a nuclear reaction called _______.
      3. Nuclei are combined together in a nuclear reaction called _______.
      4. An example of a _______ is when one neutron starts a fission reaction that produces two neutrons, and both neutrons start a new fission reaction, producing a total of four neutrons.
      Section 27.4

      Geiger counter control rods
      dose ionization
      nuclear energy nuclear waste
      positron radiotherapy
      rem 
      1. Cancer cells can be killed in the human body through a medical process called _______.
      2. A/An _______ is a unit of measure of the impact of radioactivity on humans.
      3. If you have been exposed to too much radioactivity, you have received a dangerous _______.
      4. A nuclear power plant’s spent fuel is called _______.
      5. In a nuclear reactor, the rate of reactions can be slowed down by inserting the _______.
      6. The antimatter particle twin of the electron with a charge of +1.6×10−19 C is the _______.
      7. Reactions in the atomic nucleus produce _______.
      8. After _______, the remaining atom has one fewer electron and a net positive charge.
      9. An instrument that pops every time a radioactive particle passes through it is called a/an _______.

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