Chapter 27 review

    Conceptual questions
      Section 27.3
      1. Easy What is the difference between fission and fusion?
      2. Medium Which nuclear reaction, fission or fusion, normally involves low-mass nuclei? High-mass nuclei? Explain.
      3. Challenging In a nuclear reaction, does the total mass stay the same? Does the total energy stay the same? Why?
      Section 27.4
      1. How does nuclear fission influence your daily life?
      2. How is nuclear physics used to diagnose patients?
      3. Should a larger fraction of the country’s electricity be produced using nuclear power? Synthesize relevant information about nuclear fission from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, craft a cohesive report supporting your opinion, and provide properly formatted citations.
      4. Easy A student is designing an investigative procedure using the interactive simulation of control rods in a nuclear reactor in Investigation 27A on page 1606.
        1. What variable can the experimenter change?
        2. Write a well-defined question that can be answered using the simulation about the effects of leaving the control rods fully retracted from the reactor.
        3. Write down a testable hypothesis that can address that question.
        4. What observations should she include in the procedure to address that question and hypothesis?
        5. What limitations of the simulation might the student remedy by using an additional piece of equipment?
        6. Would it be a good idea to choose a different piece of technology, such as running the procedure on a real nuclear reactor instead of a simulation?
        7. The student wants the experimenter to measure the distance of the control rods from the top of the reactor and compare it to the size of a typical reactor. Is this a reasonable measurement to include in the procedure? Do you expect the experimenter to provide reasonable answers?
      5. Easy How is radiation therapy related to nuclear physics?
      6. Easy How is nuclear power related to properties of the nuclei of atoms?
      7. Easy How is magnetic resonance imaging related to quantum physics?
      8. Medium The gas in a ceiling fluorescent light has a temperature of 15,000 K. If the temperature is so high, why is it that we do not feel incredible heat energy coming from it?
        Quantitative problems
          Section 27.1
          1. Identify the unknown particle in the nuclear reaction equation H 1 2 + H 1 2 H 2 3 e+X
          2. How many atomic mass units are there in one kilogram of matter?
          3. Easy If the nuclei of nitrogen-14 and lithium-6 combine, what isotope is the product?
          4. Easy If neon-20 spontaneously breaks in two and one of the products is the isotope carbon-11, what is the other isotope produced by the reaction?
          5. Easy What is the isotope X produced by the following reaction? H 1 2 + O 8 18 X+ p 1 1
          6. Easy Calculate the mass of a carbon-12 atom in kilograms.
          7. Easy Calculate the mass of a carbon-13 atom in kilograms. Make sure to look up the mass of carbon-13 in amu.
          8. Easy What is the charge of an atom of carbon-13 that is doubly ionized, i.e., it has had two of its electrons removed?
          9. Easy What is the difference in the nuclei of the isotopes of oxygen-16, oxygen-17, and oxygen-18? What is the difference in their numbers of electrons?
          10. Easy How much rest energy does 0.001 kg of matter have?
          11. Medium How many atoms are there in one kilogram of carbon-12?
          12. Medium Carbon-12 is a common isotope of carbon.
            1. How many protons and how many neutrons does this isotope have?
            2. What is the sum of the masses of these protons and neutrons? (The mass of a proton and neutron are 1.0073 and 1.0087 amu, respectively.)
            3. The mass of a carbon-12 nucleus is 11.9967 amu. What is the mass deficiency?
            4. Convert the mass deficiency to kilograms and use Einstein’s equation to calculate the binding energy in joules. (1.661×10−27 kg = 1 amu.)
          13. Medium Calculate the rest energy of a proton, a neutron, and an electron in joules. (A proton has a mass of 1.673×10−27 kg, a neutron has a mass of 1.675×10−27 kg, and an electron has a mass of 9.11×10−31 kg.)

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