Chapter 14 review


    Vocabulary
    Match each word to the sentence where it best fits.
      Section 14.1

      amplitude cycle
      damping frequency
      hertz (Hz) oscillator
      period phase
      1. A video runs at 30 frames/s, therefore its _______ is 30 Hz.
      2. The amount of time that an oscillator takes to complete one cycle is known as the _______.
      3. An oscillation that repeats seven times per second can be written as 7 _______.
      4. The maximum displacement of an oscillator is its _______.
      5. After a car hits a pothole it may bounce up and down, but those oscillations decrease over time because of _______.
      6. Each time an oscillator returns back to its beginning state it has completed one _______.
      7. A pendulum is an example of a/an _______.
      Section 14.2

      periodic force resonance
      1. When Sally pushed Jenny on the swing with a frequency that matched the swing’s natural frequency, they were demonstrating _______.
      2. When a girl pushes a boy on a playground swing in a regular pattern that helps him swing higher, the girl is applying a _______.
      Conceptual questions
        Section 14.1
        1. Ask two friends the meaning of the word “cycle” in each of the following sentences.

          Sentence 1: “The cycle of a pendulum is one complete back-and-forth motion.”
          Sentence 2: “Fashion tends to go through cycles where styles are in favor for a while, become unpopular, then come back to being in favor again.”

          Have them compare the two meanings. How are they similar? How are they different?
        1. Easy What feature about a pendulum allows it to be used as a clock?
        2. Easy If you hang a dumbbell from a vertically suspended spring and start it oscillating up and down, eventually it will stop oscillating. Why?
        3. Easy When measuring the length of a pendulum, what part of the clamp holding it should you use as the top of the pendulum?
        4. Easy What are two ways to measure and describe a pendulum’s maximum displacement from equilibrium?
        5. Easy An AM radio station broadcasts at 1,050 kHz. How many times per second does its signal oscillate?
        6. Easy A pendulum takes 2 s to complete one cycle of oscillation. What is the frequency of the pendulum’s motion?
        7. Easy Describe the different forms of energy involved when a pendulum oscillates back and forth.
        8. Medium Imagine placing a spherical metal ball on a small round bowl. Why is it easy to place the ball motionless in the middle of the upright bowl but difficult to place it motionless in the middle of the upside-down bowl?
        9. Medium Two pendulums are swinging back and forth. The first pendulum makes two complete oscillations in the time it takes the second pendulum to make only one complete oscillation. Which pendulum has a longer period? Which one has a higher frequency?
        10. Medium Arrange the following in order of increasing period.
          1. motion of the Earth around the Sun
          2. rotation of the Earth about its axis
          3. motion of the Moon around the Earth to complete one lunar cycle
        11. Medium You are using a stopwatch to measure the period of a pendulum. After releasing the pendulum, you find that it reaches maximum velocity for the first time at t1 = 0.5 s. What is the pendulum’s period?
        12. Medium Arrange the following in order of increasing frequency.
          1. motion of the Earth around the Sun
          2. rotation of the Earth about its axis
          3. motion of the Moon around the Earth to complete one lunar cycle
        13. Medium What is the relationship between a pendulum’s amplitude and the length of the arc the pendulum traces out during one complete swing?

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