Chapter 3 review

    Match each word to the sentence where it best fits.
      Section 3.1

      coordinates displacement
      magnitude origin
      position scalar
      1. When Ilana moved her pencil from the location (2, 4) cm on her paper to the location (6, 3) cm, the _______ she made was (+4, −1) cm.
      2. _______ are values that together determine a unique position in space.
      3. Marcel identified the ground beneath his feet as the _______ by labeling it with “0 meters.”
      4. Mass, speed, and temperature are examples of _______ quantities unlike the vector quantities such as velocity and force
      5. An object’s _______ is a vector that tells where it is relative to the origin.
      6. A quantity that has both magnitude and direction is a/an _______.
      Section 3.2

      average velocity inertial reference frame
      instantaneous velocity reference frame
      slope speed
      1. Two people driving in cars at constant speed but in opposite directions on the highway are each traveling in a/an _______.
      2. _______ can be calculated by dividing the change in position by the change in time.
      3. _______ measures the steepness of a graph.
      4. _______ has the same units as speed but is a vector, so it includes information about direction.
      5. After Sinead finished a road trip, her GPS told her that her maximum speed was 58 mph. That means that at some point in her trip her _______ was 58 mph.
      6. An office worker on the tenth floor of a building labels the origin of his _______ as zero meters at the bottom of his feet, despite being located 100 ft above ground.
      1. During stop-and-go driving in a traffic jam, Darrius moved 5 km in one-half of an hour. His _______ was 10 km/hr.
      Conceptual questions
        Section 3.1
        1. Which of the following sentences best matches the meaning of the equation d = xf − xi?
          1. The final position is the initial position minus the displacement.
          2. The initial position is the final position plus the displacement.
          3. The displacement is the initial position minus the final position.
          4. The displacement is the final position minus the initial position.
        2. Latitude and longitude lines form a convenient coordinate system for specifying locations on Earth’s surface. Where is the origin of this coordinate system? (Hint: The east–west origin and north–south origin both need to be identified.)
        3. Are the following vector or scalar quantities?
          1. temperature
          2. computer memory space
          3. location from a GPS
          4. speedometer reading
        4. What is the relationship between the scalar distance and the vector displacement?
        5. Describe a situation in which someone moves a distance of 100 m yet has a displacement of zero.
        6. Easy What is the difference between position and displacement?
        7. Easy Give three phrases that are examples of displacements without using the word “displacement.” These should be given as you would speak them to a friend.
          For example, “I ....”
        8. Easy Which of the following are vectors?
          1. distance
          2. position
          3. displacement
        9. Easy Can you add or subtract a distance from a displacement?
        10. Medium What factors would influence a person’s choice of an origin and coordinate system for a given problem?

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